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Unravelling the phases of melamine formaldehyde resin cure by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR)

  • Here, we study resin cure and network formation of solid melamine formaldehyde pre-polymer over a large temperature range viadynamic temperature curing profiles. Real-time infrared spectroscopy is used to analyze the chemical changes during network formation and network hardening. By applying chemometrics (multivariate curve resolution,MCR), the essential chemical functionalities that constitute the network at a given stage of curing are mathematically extracted and tracked over time. The three spectral components identified by MCR were methylol-rich, ether linkages-rich and methylene linkages-rich resin entities. Based on dynamic changes of their characteristic spectral patterns in dependence of temperature, curing is divided into five phases: (I) stationary phase with free methylols as main chemical feature, (II) formation of flexible network cross-linked by ether linkages, (III) formation of rigid, ether-cross-linked network, (IV) further hardening via transformation of methylols and ethers into methylene-cross-linkages, and (V) network consolidation via transformation of ether into methylene bridges. The presented spectroscopic/chemometric approach can be used as methodological basis for the functionality design of MF-based surface films at the stage of laminate pressing, i.e., for tailoring the technological property profile of cured MF films using a causal understanding of the underlying chemistry based on molecular markers and spectroscopic fingerprints.

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Metadaten
Name:Kandelbauer, Andreas
URN:urn:nbn:de:bsz:rt2-opus4-28273
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112569
ISSN:2073-4360
Erschienen in:Polymers
Publisher:MDPI
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of Publication:2020
Tag:curing; infrared spectroscopy; melamine formaldehyde resin; multivariate curve resolution
Volume:12
Issue:11, Aufsatz 2569
Pagenumber:19
First Page:1
Last Page:19
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemie
Open Access:Ja
Licence (German):License Logo  Creative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International