## 510 Mathematik

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Geometry of music perception
(2022)

Prevalent neuroscientific theories are combined with acoustic observations from various studies to create a consistent geometric model for music perception in order to rationalize, explain and predict psycho-acoustic phenomena. The space of all chords is shown to be a Whitney stratified space. Each stratum is a Riemannian manifold which naturally yields a geodesic distance across strata. The resulting metric is compatible with voice-leading satisfying the triangle inequality. The geometric model allows for rigorous studies of psychoacoustic quantities such as roughness and harmonicity as height functions. In order to show how to use the geometric framework in psychoacoustic studies, concepts for the perception of chord resolutions are introduced and analyzed.

The aim of this work is to establish and generalize a relationship between fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs) and stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to a wider class of stochastic processes, including fractional Brownian motions and sub-fractional Brownian motions with Hurst parameter H ∈ (1/2,1). We start by establishing the connection between a fPDE and SDE via the Feynman-Kac Theorem, which provides a stochastic representation of a general Cauchy problem. In hindsight, we extend this connection by assuming SDEs with fractional and sub-fractional Brownian motions and prove the generalized Feynman-Kac formulas under a (sub-)fractional Brownian motion. An application of the theorem demonstrates, as a by-product, the solution of a fractional integral, which has relevance in probability theory.

This study empirically analyzes and compares return data from developed and emerging market data based on the Fama French five-factor model and compares it to previous results from the Fama French three-factor model by Kostin, Runge and Adams (2021). It researches whether the addition of the profitability and investment pattern factors show superior results in the assessment of emerging markets during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to developed markets. We use panel data covering eight indices of developed and emerging countries as well as a selection of eight companies from these markets, covering a period from 2000 to 2020. Our findings suggest that emerging markets do not generally outperform developed markets. The results underscore the need to reconsider the assumption that adding more factors to regression models automatically yields results that are more reliable. Our study contributes to the extant literature by broadening this research area. It is the first study to compare the performance of the Fama French three-factor model and the Fama French five-factor model in the cost of equity calculation for developed and emerging countries during the COVID-19 pandemic and other crisis events of the past two decades.

In this note we look at anisotropic approximation of smooth functions on bounded domains with tensor product splines. The main idea is to extend such functions and then use known approximation techniques on Rd. We prove an error estimate for domains for which bounded extension operators exist. This obvious approach has some limitations. It is not applicable without restrictions on the chosen coordinate degree even if the domain is as simple as the unit disk. Further for approximation on Rd there are error estimates in which the grid widths and directional derivatives are paired in an interesting way. It seems impossible to maintain this property using extension operators.

In this article feedback linearization for control-affine nonlinear systems is extended to systems where linearization is not feasible in the complete state space by combining state feedback linearization and homotopy numerical continuation in subspaces of the phase space where feedback linearization fails. Starting from the conceptual simplicity of feedback linearization, this new method expands the scope of their applicability to irregular systems with poorly expressed relative degree. The method is illustrated on a simple SISO–system and by controlling the speed and the rotor flux linkage in a three phase induction machine.

This paper analyzes governance mechanisms for different group sizes. The European sovereign debt crisis has demonstrated the need of efficient governance for different group sizes. I find that self-governance only works for sufficiently homogenous and small neighbourhoods. Second, as long as the union expands, the effect of credible self-governance decreases. Third, spill-over effects amplify the size effect. Fourth, I show that sufficiently large monetary unions, are better off with costly but external governance or a free market mechanism. Finally, intermediate-size unions are most difficult to govern efficiently.

Applied mathematical theory for monetary-fiscal interaction in a supranational monetary union
(2014)

I utilize a differentiable dynamical system á la Lotka-Voletrra and explain monetary and fiscal interaction in a supranational monetary union. The paper demonstrates an applied mathematical approach that provides useful insights about the interaction mechanisms in theoretical economics in general and a monetary union in particular. I find that a common central bank is necessary but not sufficient to tackle the new interaction problems in a supranational monetary union, such as the free-riding behaviour of fiscal policies. Moreover, I show that upranational institutions, rules or laws are essential to mitigate violations of decentralized fiscal policies.